PULSED PLASMA THRUSTERSBusek’s micro-Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (μPPTs) have been in development since 2002 based upon technology originally developed at AFRL. These simple units feature no moving parts and non-toxic Teflon propellant. Each unit contains all the necessary electronics (PPU/DCIU), requiring only power and command input from the host spacecraft. Smaller, more advanced units are in active development for CubeSat propulsion systems. Generally, these thrusters offer the following benefits:•Low jitter precision manoeuvres•Non-toxic solid Teflon propellant•No moving parts, no pressurized containers•Long storage life•Large temperature rangeμPPT-1 (MPACS)Four 3-axis μPPTs, or MPACS (Micro Propulsion Attitude Control System), have successfully flown on FalconSat-3 (launched 2007). These thruster clusters, pictured at right, feature the following•Precise, pulsed impulse bits (80μN-s)•Direct flight heritage•Solid propellant – no pressurized containers, no moving parts•Low power: < 10WμPPT-2A multiplexed array of 9 μPPTs was constructed and delivered to the Air Force Institute of Technology as a lab-model test unit. This unit featured flight heritage μPPTs technology, increased the amount of total impulse of the MPACS unit while decreasing required power and digital electronics. BmP-220The latest generation of the μPPT family consumes less than 7.5W, 0.5kg and provides both primary and attitude control propulsion for CubeSats. This unit fits within a 10 x 10 x 7cm volume and includes all necessary power, charging, and digital interface electronics. Total impulse is 220 N-s.